A critique of, and an alternative to, the official Irish Gaelic terminology

Ciarán Ó Duibhín

There is a right way and a wrong way to create terminology in any language. The right way is this. Suppose a native speaker of the language observed the idea, and had its meaning and working explained to him, but without attaching a name to the idea, either in English or in any other language. What would he call it? Examples of such intuitive terms in Irish Gaelic include staighre beo (escalator) and inneall sioctha (refrigerator). The wrong way is to start from the name of the idea in some other language.

      "Labhair 'sa' dóigh a dtuigfear thú agus na bí a' déanamh úsáid' de na foclaí móra sin!"
      — Uaigheanna Chill Mhóirne, lch 365

(Official Irish computing terms are taken from FR: Foclóir Ríomhaireachta is Teicneolaíocht Faisnéise, An Gúm, 2004, and occasionally from the earlier TR: Téarmaí Ríomhaireachta, An Gúm, 1990; while a few other transient official forms are quoted from TRS: an unpublished supplement to TR, from An Gúm in 1999.) 

In creating computing terminology in Irish Gaelic, we have an opportunity to make learning about computing through Gaelic a rewarding experience.  This will be the case if our terms are chosen to suggest to the Gaelic speaker the concepts which they represent.  On the other hand, terms which are produced by some consideration other than the ideas which they provoke in the mind of the Gaelic speaker, and the relevance of those ideas to the concepts represented, just create an extra layer of difficulty for the Gaelic-speaking student. But some of the official terms seem to have been designed, not for the benefit of the Gaelic-speaker at all, but for the English-speaker, to whom they suggest an English term through formal similarity. To my mind, designing a Gaelic terminology to facilitate the English speaker with a Gaelic dictionary rather than the Gaelic speaker is self-evidently energy misplaced.

Let us consider a few examples.  Firstly, why call a key of a keyboard an eochair (FR 254)? An eochair is something that grants access, normally by turning in a lock, and computers may have them too.  English uses the same word key for a cnaipe on a keyboard, but other languages do not confuse the two ideas, certainly not French or German, and certainly not Gaelic.  Or secondly, imagine a native speaker of continuity Gaelic, knowing that a clár is something characterised by a flat, smooth and usually hard surface, who is looking at a computer while listening to a user of standard terminology talking about the ríomhchlár.  How would he guess that the reference is to an abstraction, a sequence of instructions laid down by a human for the machine to follow (FR 296 sub program)?  My suggested term for a computer program is ríomhoideas, around which a satisfying semantic field can be constructed (which does not make computer programmers sound like carpenters' apprentices).  Or thirdly, compare the official timfhilleadh giotánra (FR 347) for word wrap with my suggested slánfhoclacht.  The essential thing about wordwrap — a simply grasped and non-technical idea — is that text which is too wide for the physical line is broken into lines of text, each shorter than the physical line, such that each text line contains only complete words (words in the focal sense, nothing whatever to do with giotánra).

Furthermore, it must be realised that computing terminology in English is a bad model to follow.  It is poorly structured and often capricious, as a consequence of having grown, and continuing to grow, without control.  Among the consequences are, firstly, the existence of multiple English terms for a single concept, arising from rival commercial or academic backgrounds.  Secondly, a term may shift its meaning as concepts develop, and may no longer mean what it (etymologically) says. Thirdly, terms may be named with an element of wordplay — virtual reality is an example; to ignore this and translate them "seriously" produces bizarre results.

Creating Gaelic computing terminology by translating English terms literally root-by-root just reproduces the systematic faults of the English, and even accentuates them through loss of conciseness.  It serves no purpose if learners of computing through Gaelic cannot assume that the terms they meet carry meanings related to their natural meaning as Gaelic words, but instead have to be root-translated back to English, reversing the process by which they were created, and the meaning of the concept learned through the resulting English.

Rather, what we must strive to do is understand the meanings of the concepts, and express those meanings in natural Gaelic.  This requires both inspiration and reflection — good terminology cannot be bulk-composed on demand.  However, we need not start entirely from scratch, for other languages before us have constructed computing terminology more or less deliberately in this way—if we must have etymological translation of computer terms, we would be better to translate them from such a language (e.g. French) than from English.

The list which follows began as a collection of cases where the official Irish Gaelic terms fail to meet the criteria of helpfully suggesting the meaning of the concepts they label (including some of the most basic concepts of the subject), or in some cases are translations of a misinterpretation of the English term.  Linked notes have been provided in cases where explanation is felt to be important, including many of the fundamental cases which have brought about the existence of this list.

In an effort to make the list more generally useful, it has been expanded, partly by taking in some of the many acceptable and useful terms from the official lists. Consequently, the reason for its existence has become less conspicuous, but remains unchanged and urgent. Of course the list is still very far from being comprehensive for any area of computing. I reserve the right to improve any of the terms in this file as a result of further reflection — terms signalled by question marks are particularly likely to be impermanent.

I have tried to render English acronyms by meaningful terms which are short enough to require no abbreviation — an acronym makes, in general, a poor term.

It is sometimes necessary, in the constrained screen space of the menu option or button label or icon title, to employ terms which would be unsuitable in normal prose; forms marked "menu" or "button" or "icon" are intended for use in such confined spaces.

Some effort has also been devoted to providing terms which could be used in Scotland as well as in Ireland, and further comments and suggestions in this regard are particularly welcome.

Some insightful suggestions from the late Breandán Ó Mearáin are gratefully acknowledged.

My period of work in assessing the drafting of Irish-medium ICT examination papers for the Northern Ireland Council for the Curriculum, Examinations and Assessment (NICCEA) has provided a welcome stimulus in sustaining the development of this list, by challenging me to find meaningful ways of expressing computing ideas in simple and practical contexts.

abort button, menu: scoir, scoir de; cf quit
access br: sroicheachtáil
adaptation afh: (aspect of software maintainance) leathnú
adapter afh: connector (e.g. ISDN adapter): ceangaltán
add-on aid:
    which can be added on: for-líontach
    (a facility) to add things on: (áis) fhor-líonaithe
add-on afh: something added on, for-líontán
append br
    to append X to Y: X a chur le deireadh Y
    menu: iar-cheangail
application afh — see "application program"
application program afh: feidhm-oideas
application software afh: feidhm-oideasra
archive, archive file — see "zip file"
archive query afh: órdú leis na sean-taifid a aistriú amach as an chasán, órdú gort-ghlanta
assembler — see "compiler"
ATM (automatic teller machine) — see "cash machine"
audio CD — see "CD, audio"
audio/video controls buttons:
    play, seinn                          alternative set: siubhail
    stop, stad                                                 stad
    pause, seas                                               seas
    fast forward, ar aghaidh                          rith       
    rewind, ar ais                                           rith ar ais

back button
    1. see "previous" under "navigation"
    2. see "rewind" under "audio/video controls"
    3. see "undo"
backup afh: cúl-taca, cóip chúl-taca
backup br: cúl-taca a dheánamh
backup CD-ROM — see "CD-ROM"
backward chaining — see "reasoning, result-driven"
batch afh: (?)beart
batch processing afh: beart-phróiseáil
bit afh: aonán
bootstrapping afh: muin-mharcaíocht
boot-up br: toisigh, athmhuscail
bottom-up aid: bun-aníos
    br siortaigh
    menu: cuir lorg
browser afh: siortaitheoir
buffer afh: gabhdán
bullet afh: píleár
byte afh: ochtán

cache afh: memory cache: taisce slis-chuimhne
cancel button, menu (vs OK, submit): ná deán
carrier afh: tonn iompair
case-sensitive aid: cás-fhiosach, cás-eadardhealaitheach

cash dispenser — see "cash machine"
cash machine afh: inneall airgid
CD, audio afh: dlúthdhiosca fuaime
CD-R afh: dlúthdhiosca inscríobhtha
CD-RW afh: dlúthdhiosca inathscríobhtha
CD-ROM afh: (vs. audio CD) dlúthdhiosca ríomhaireachta (DDR)
    (vs. CD-R, CD-RW) dlúthdhiosca doscríobhtha
    multimedia CD-ROM: dlúthdhiosca ilmheánach (DDI)
    backup CD-ROM: dlúthdhiosca cúl-taca
change br: athraigh
character afh: carachtar
character code (e.g. ASCII) afh: cód carachtar
character set afh: cnuasach carachtar
character set, coded — see "character code"
character repertoire — see "character set"
CLI (command-line interface) — see "interface"
clipboard afh: (?)greamchlár
code page — see "character code"
code table afh: tábla carachtar
command afh: órdú
    command-line: líne na n-ordaithe; see also "CLI"
communications afh: teangmháil
compiler afh: (?)tiomsaitheoir
compression afh: crupadh
computation afh: ríomhaireacht
computer afh: inneall, ríomh-inneall (Fr. ordinateur)
    computer, desktop afh: inneall bóird
    computer, home afh: inneall baile
    computer, laptop afh: inneall glúin
    computer, palm-top afh: inneall boise
    computer, tower afh: inneall túir
computer science afh: ríomh-eolaidheacht
computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) afh: ríomhchomhdheántúsaíocht, comhdheántúsaíocht
concurrent — see "parallel"
configure — see "customise"
configuration afh:
    1. act of configuring — see "customisation"
    2. particular set of choices: bail, roghanna
correction afh: (aspect of software maintainance) ceartú
CRT — see "screen"
customise br: oiriúnaigh
customisation afh: oiriúnú
cut and paste br: gearr agus greamaigh

data integrity afh: comhsheasmhacht sonraí
data logging afh: taifeadadh sonraí
data projector afh: teilgeoir sonraí
data redundancy afh: iomarcaíocht sonraí
deadlock afh: comhsháinn
de-compression afh: ath-leathadh
decryption afh: dí-dhiamhrú
default value afh: luach éagmaise
    by default: nuair nach n-iarrtar a mhalairt
demo program afh: dearc-oideas
desktop afh: lom-chlár
desktop computer — see "computer, desktop"
desktop publishing afh: ríomh-fhoillsitheoireacht  (Fr. publication assistée par ordinateur; édition électronique)
detect br: (?)mothaigh
device afh: goireas
dialog afh: agallamh, eadarchómhrádh
digital aid: duideatach
directory afh: comhadlann, fillteán  A directory is simply a group of files, functioning as a unit in an organisational hierarchy. (Fr. répertoire). "Eolaí" belongs to a different meaning of the English word "directory", a listing of items with information about each.  Information about computer files is generally not nowadays obtained in the directory, but as a property of the individual file.
directory, root afh: comhadlann chinn, filltéan cinn
distributed aid: imscaipthe
down dobhr: the computer is down — tá an t-inneall i laige
    1. br: tarraing anuas, tarraing chugat, tarraing anall
    2. menu, button: anuas; chugat; anall; comhad anuas; comhad chugat; comhad anall
draft-quality print — see "print, draft-quality"
drive (hardware) afh: tiomántán
driver (software) afh: tiománaí
DVD (digital versatile disk) afh: diosca sárdhlúth (Is é an dlúthas an duifear bunadhasach eadar DVD agus CD. Níl acronym de dhíth.)

e-commerce afh: ríomh-thráchtáil
    1. afh: deisiú
        global edit: deisiú leitheadach
    2. br: deisigh
editing afh: deisightheoracht
editor afh: deisightheoir
Is ionann deis agus deagh-eagar. Deir Seamus 'ac Grianna: bhéarfainn a bhfaca mé riamh ar a bheith ábalta deis a chur ar mo sheanchus agus craiceann a chur ar mo chuid cainnte mar ghníodh [m'athair] (Nuair a bhí mé óg, 1942, lch 20). Ní hionann deis agus "repair" — nuair a deir Seosamh 'ac Grianna go rabh Eoghan Ruadh Ó Néill ag brath deis eile a chur ar léarsgáil na hEorpa (Eoghan Ruadh Ó Néill, 1931, lch 10) chan é go rabh sé á shamhlú ag teacht agus an sellotape ina láimh leis!
e-mail afh: ríomh-phost (Níl feidhm lena ghearradh a thuilleadh.)
encryption afh: indiamhrú
    1. button: (e.g. enter web site) isteach
    2. br: type via keyboard: méarchláraigh
environment afh:
    1. complete: ríomh-thimpeallacht
    2. (ciall chumhang) an fhó-thimpeallacht a chruthaítear as an chuid sin den timpeallacht ar a dtugtar
        an "operating system", fríd "environment variables" a chinntiú: (?)fó-thimpeallacht
environment variable afh: athróg fhó-thimpeallachta
error message afh: gearán
    1. menu, button: amach
    2. br: téigh amach, fág
    3. afh: asdul
export br: of data: cuir amach, caith amach
external aid: outside the main computer unit: seachtrach

fast forward button — see "audio/video controls"
favourites afh: annsachtaí
feedback afh: aiseolas
file afh: comhad
file compression afh: comhad-chrupadh
filestore afh:
    1. as a whole: comhad-spás, comhad-stóras
final button — see "navigation"
first button — see "navigation"
flatbed aid: pláta
flatbed (scanner, plotter, etc.)afh: inneall pláta
flat file afh: taifead-chomhad leathnaithe
The term "flat file" is used when an entire database is stored in a single database file, rather than in a relational set of database files; this may require the data to be "flattened" (leathnaithe, leacaithe) by redundantly repeating the same field value over a number of records. All database files, whether flat or not, consist of records which consist of fields; they are emphatically not téacschomhaid  (FR 231 has téacschomhad simplí for "flat file").
folder – see "directory"
format afh: (?)cruth
format, proprietary afh: sain-fhormáid
forward button:
    1. see "next" under "navigation"
    2. see "fast forward" under "audio/video controls"
forward chaining — see "reasoning, data-driven"
full-screen button: lán-scáileán
function — see "subprogram, non-void"

graphic afh: (a picture in a document) grafaic
graphics afh: (the subject of graphics) an ghrafaic
GUI (graphic user interface) — see "interface"

hardware afh: inneallra
help button, menu: treoir
help file afh: comhad treorach
hexadecimal aid: sé-déagach
hide button, menu: as amharc, ceilt
high resolution, high definition afh: árd-mhíneadas
home page — see "page, home"

identifier afh: aitheantóir
identity code afh: cód aitheantais (Chan "cód ionannais" ach a mhalairt.)
import br: of data: glac isteach, slug isteach
information afh: eolas
information system afh: ríomhchóras eolais
input file afh: inchomhad
install br: suidhe
installer afh: suidhteálaí
instruction — see "command"
instruction, machine-code afh: bun-órdú innill
integrated package afh: feidhm-oideas comhdhlúite; cf. program suite
interaction afh:
    1. active participation of user: comhpháirteachas
    2. dialogue by which this is accomplished — see "dialog"
interactive computing afh: ríomhaireacht chomhpháirteach
interface afh: comhéadan
    command-line interface (CLI): comhéadan téacs-líneach
    graphic user interface (GUI): comhéadan grafach
internal aid: inside the main computer unit: inmheánach
internet afh: eadarlíon
the Internet afh: an tEadarlíon
interpreter afh: feidhmitheoir
FR 251 has léirmhínitheoir for interpreter. But an interpreter does not "mínigh" (explain or paraphrase) a program as it reads it. It executes it.
intranet afh: eadarlíon druidte, eadarlíon príobháideach
ISP (internet service provider) afh: ceangaltóir eadarlín
item (of hardware, software) afh: píosa
, giota, ball, mír

key afh:
    1. on keyboard: cnaipe (Fr. touche not clef, Ger. Taste not Schlüssel)
    2. eolas a threorann muid chuig an aonad cheart as cnuasach aonad: seoladh;
        (as adjective) seolta
key, key in br: méarchláraigh
    data are keyed into the system: cuirtear isteach sonraí ar mhéarchlár an chórais
key field afh: réimse seolta
keyboard afh: méarchlár
keyboard br: méarbhuail
keystroke afh: méarbhuille
keyword afh:
    1. preferred indexing or search term: focal seolta
    2. reserved word in programming language: sain-fhocal
knowledge afh:
    information organised into facts and rules, and amenable to the process of deduction: fios
    (thus: knowledge-based systems, knowledge engineering, knowledge representation, knowledge acquisition, knowledge manipulation)

lap-top computer — see "computer, lap-top"
last button — see "previous" or "final" under "navigation"
length, fixed- aid: comh-fhada
length, variable- aid: il-fhada
local-area network (LAN) afh — see "network, local area"
log in, log on (also check-in) br: indearbhadh
log out, log off (also check-out) br: asdearbhadh
logged in aid: indearbhtha (?)

machine code instruction — see "instruction, machine code"
maintain br: (hardware or software): dóigh (mhaith) a choinneáil air, é a choinneáil i ngléas
maintainance afh: (hardware or software): coinneáil i ngléas
maximise button: mórfhuinneog
memory, main afh: slis-chuimhne, príomhchuimhne
    RAM: slis-chuimhne luaineach (Fr. mémoire vive)
    ROM: slis-chuimhne sheasmhach (Fr. mémoire morte; mémoire fixe)
memory, secondary afh: cuimhne thánaisteach, cuimhne thacaitheach
menu afh: rogha-liosta
    main-menu: ceann-liosta
    sub-menu: fó-liosta
    pop-up menu: preab-liosta (Fr. menu déroulant)
menu option afh: (?)liost-rogha
    pop-up menu option: preab-rogha
message — see "error message", "prompt message", "warning message"
minimise button: mionfhuinneog
minimum specification — see "specification, minimum"
mobile phone afh: guthán póca
model, computer afh: ríomh-shamhail
modelling, computer afh: (ríomh-)shamhladh, (ríomh-)aithris  Cf. virtual
modify — see "change"
monitor afh:
    1. screen device — see "screen"
    2. supervising program: oideas faire
monospaced — see "spaced, mono-"
monospacing — see "spacing, mono-"
multi-media CD-ROM — see "CD-ROM"
multi-process aid: il-phróisis; e.g. multi-process operating system: córas dubhshraithe il-phróisis
multi-processor aid: il-phróiseálán; e.g. multi-processor network: líonra il-phróiseálán
multi-processing afh:
    1. through multiple processors: oibriú il-phróiseálán
    2. through multiple processes: oibriú il-phróiséis
multi-programming — see "multi-process"
multi-tasking — see "multi-process"
My Computer icon: An tInneall Seo
My Documents icon: Deántús

navigation (of discrete sequences) buttons:
    first, chéad cheann
    next, ceann ina dhiaidh
    previous, ceann roimhe
    final, ceann deiridh
A distinction may sometimes be necessary, e.g. in the case of web pages, between the logical sequence as designed and the temporal sequence as visited. A browser's "previous/back" button refers to the temporal sequence, whereas a "previous/back" button on a web page often refers to the logical sequence.
near-letter-quality (NLQ) print — see "print, near-letter-quality"
network afh: líonra
network, local-area (LAN): líonra cóngair
network, wide-area (WAN): cian-líonra
next button — see "navigation"
normalisation afh: (of data) normalú

OCR afh: litir-aithniú; gabháil téacs; léigheamh téacs; see also "scanning"
OK menu (vs Cancel): OK; deán
operating system afh: córas dubhshraithe (Fr. système d'exploitation, Ger. Betriebungssystem)
options — see "configuration 2"
output file afh: aschomhad

pack br: cnuasaigh isteach, i gcnuas-chomhad
package — see "application"
pad, tracker afh: mullóg leanta, maológ leanta
page, home afh: duilleog chinn, clár cinn (Fr. page d'accueil, Ger. Hauptseite, Sp. página inicial)
page, web afh: duilleog ghréasáin, clár gréasáin
palm-top computer — see "computer, palm-top"
parallel aid: comh-uaineach
parallel port — see "port, parallel"
parameter afh
    1. setting, option: rogha — see "configuration 2"
    2. parameter (in a sub-program heading): ceann-athróg
    3. parameter (more general sense, like "independent variable"): saor-athróg
password afh: eochair-fhocal, focal rúnda
pause button — see "audio/video controls"
perfection afh: (aspect of software maintainance) foirfiú
platform afh: dubhshraith
platform, hardware afh: cruaidh-dhubhshraith
platform, software afh: bog-dhubhshraith
play button — see "audio/video controls"
pop-up aid — see "menu", "menu option"
port afh: béalóg
port, parallel afh: béalóg chomh-uaineach
port, serial afh: béalóg shraitheach
port, printer afh: béalóg priontála
preferences — see "configuration 2"
preview afh: réamhspléachadh
previous button — see "navigation"
print, draft-quality afh: cló garbh
print, near-letter-quality (NLQ) afh: cló mín
printer afh: inneall priontála, inneal cló
printer, inkjet afh: scaird-inneall (priontála)
printer, laser afh: inneall (priontála) léasair
printer port — see "port, printer"
procedure — see "sub-program"
process afh: próiséas
processor afh
    1. hardware (e.g. central processor): próiseálán
    2. software (e.g. word processor): próiseálaí
program afh: (ríomh-)oideas
    see also under "demo", "utility", "application", "source"
program suite — see "suite, program"
programmer afh: cumadóir ríomh-oideas
programming afh: cumadóireacht ríomh-oideas
prompt afh: broideadh
prompt message, prompt text afh: lideadh
proportional spacing — see "spacing, proportional"
proportionally-spaced — see "spaced, proportionally-"

query afh:
    (in general sense) — see "command"
    (in narrower sense, to exclude "action queries"): órdú fiosraithe
query, action afh: órdú athraithe
query, non-action afh: órdú fiosraithe
quit menu, button: scoir (de); cf abort

RAM — see "memory (main)" ainm comhaid: léigh.seo
read-only aid (in relation to file, memory etc, indicating that permission is denied
   to write to it and thereby alter the contents): seasmhach, do-athraithe — see also "read-write", "memory (main)"
read-write aid (in relation to file, memory etc, indicating that permission is given
   to write as well as read): luaineach, so-athraithe — see also "read-only", "memory (main)"
   In English, often left to be inferred from the absence of 'read-only', especially with random-access memory.
real time afh: am beo
real-time aid: beo-ama, beo e.g. real-time processing: próiseáil bheo, beo-phróiseáil
reasoning afh:
    data-driven: réasúnú ó na sonraí anonn
    result-driven: réasúnú ó na torthaí anall
recommended specification — see "specification, recommended"
record afh: taifead
record key afh: réimse seolta an taifid
redundant aid: iomarcach, ró-iomlán
relation afh: (in database) coibhneas
relational database afh: bunachar coibhneasach
relationship, one-to-one afh: comhfhreagracht aon ar aon
    one-to-many: comhfhreagracht aon ar iomad
    many-to-many: comhfhreagracht iomad ar iomad
rescue disk afh: diosc sábhála
reserved word — see "keyword 2"
resolution, screen — see "screen resolution"
retrieval afh: astarraingt
rewind button — see "audio/video controls"
robot afh: ?
ROM — see "memory (main)"
root directory — see "directory, root"
router afh: (hardware) inneall ródaithe
routine — see "sub-program"
rubbish — see "waste"

save br: (put in safe place, eg. of a file): taisc, cuir i dtaisce, cuir i gcomhad, cuir in áit shábháilte
    (reduce wear on, eg. of the screen): spáráil
saver, screen — see "screen saver"
scanner afh: inneall gabhála/léighte pioctúir
scanner, flatbed — see "flatbed"
scanning afh: gabháil/léigheamh pioctúir; see also "OCR"
screen afh: (ríomh-)scáileán
screen resolution afh: míneadas an scáileáin
    a screen with resolution 800x600: scáileán de mhíneadas 800x600
    high resolution: mór-mhíneadas
    low resolution: beag-mhíneadas
screen saver afh: spárálaí scáileáin
screen shot afh: scáileán-dreach
    1. button: cuartú
    2. br: cuartaigh
sense — see "detect"
serial port — see "port, serial"
server afh: (hardware) inneall freastala, inneall dáilithe
set up br:
    1. install: lonnaigh
    2. configure — see "customise"
settings — see "configuration 2"
setup afh:
    1. process of installation:lonnú
    2. set of choices — see "configuration 2"
show button, menu: ar amharc
simulation — see "modelling"
software afh: (ríomh-)oideasra
source program afh: amh-oideas
spaced, mono-aid: comh-leathan
spaced, proportionally-aid: il-leathan
spacing, mono- afh: comhleithead
spacing, proportional afh: il-leithead
specification (of system configuration):
    minimum specification: acmhainn riachtanach
    recommended specification: acmhainn inmholta
star aid: ga(e)thach
start button: initiate activity: rith
statement — see "command"
stop button — see "audio/video controls"
string (of characters): ?
submit button: send off a composed query, e-mail, etc.: deán; cf cancel
sub-program afh: fó-oideas
sub-program, non-void (=function) afh: fó-oideas luachálta
subroutine — see "sub-program"
suitable aid: (of program or system) performs required function: deagh-dhírithe
suite, program afh: foireann ríomhoideas; cf. integrated package
support br: the machine supports voice input: tá cumas inchur urlabhra ag an inneall
surf — see "browse"
system afh:
    1. normal meaning, a collection of co-operating parts: córas input/output system: córas inchur/aschur
    2. abbrev. for "operating system": córas dubhshraithe reboot the system: an córas dubhshraithe a athmhuscailt
    3. syn. for "program": oideas database management system: oideas láimhseála bunachair
    4. syn. for "machine": inneall pentium system: inneall pentium
system aid, abbrev. for "operating system": dubhshraithe systems program: oideas dubhshraithe
        systems software: oideasra dubhshraithe
        system services: seirbhísí dubhshraithe
        system calls: scairteanna dubhshraithe
system, computing afh:
        a collection of hardware and software (e.g. for an office),
            possibly with multiple machines (system, sense 1 above): ríomh-chóras
        a single machine (system, sense 4 above): ríomh-inneall
system, operating — see "operating system"

task — see "process"
terminal afh — see "workstation"
text afh: téacs
    plain text: téacs lom
    rich text: téacs saibhraithe
    text file: téacs-chomhad
time afh: seal
top-down aid: bárr-anuas
touch-sensitive aid: tadhall-bheo
track changes menu, button: lorg ar athraithe
tracker pad — see "pad, tracker"
transaction processing afh: tuil-bheart-phróiseáil
A stream or flood (tuile) of transactions (bearta) to be processed is constantly arriving; each must be processed immediately, before the next one can be dealt with, or if this is not possible, it must be rejected.
trash — see "waste"
try again button: arís, féach arís

undo menu: iar-loic, iar-chealaigh
unpack br (extract, decompress): scaoil amach, leathnuigh amach, as cnuas-chomhad
    1. see "change"
    2. replace with more recent data, br: ath-shonraigh
            afh: ath-shonrú
upgrade afh: feabhsán
    1. br: caith anáirde, seol uait, seol anonn
    2. menu, button: suas; anáirde; uait; anonn; comhad suas, comhad anáirde, comhad uait, comhad anonn
usable aid: (of program or system) free of bugs, time-efficient: éifeachtach
user ID afh — see "identity code"
utility, utility program afh: gar-oideas
utility software afh: gar-oideasra

validate br: check internal formal consistency: cruth-dhearbhaigh
validation afh: (of data) cruth-dhearbhú
variable afh: athróg
    independent variable: saor-athróg
    dependent variable: daor-athróg
variable name afh: ainm athróige
variable type afh: cineál athróige
verify br: check correspondence of content with external reality: brí-dhearbhaigh
verification afh: (of data) brí-dhearbhú
virtual aid: bréige, bréag-, aithriseach
virtual reality afh: bith-aithris, bith-bhréagadh  Cf modelling
virtual world afh: bith bréige, bréag-bhith, bith aithriseach
visual display unit (VDU) — see "screen"
voice input afh: inchur urlabhra
voice output afh: aschur urlabhra

wait button: fan
warning message afh: rabhadh
waste afh: cunamar
waste-basket icon: cunamar (Fr. corbeille)
web page — see "page, web"
wide-area network (WAN) afh — see "network, wide-area"
width, fixed- aid — see "spacing,mono-"
width, variable- aid — see "spacing, proportional-"
wildcard afh: saoróg
word afh:
    1. a graphic unit of natural or programming language: focal
    2. a unit of memory storage consisting of a fixed number of bits: giotánra
word processing afh: focalphróiseáil
word processor afh:
    1. software: focalphróiseálaí
    2. hardware: focalphróiseálán
word wrap afh: slánfhoclacht, líníocht slánfhoclach
    a wordwrapped line: líne shlánfhoclach
    with wordwrap: le slánfhocla
workstation afh: ?
the World-Wide Web afh: an Gréasán Domhanda

zip disk afh: diosca zip
zip drive afh: tiomántán zip
zip file (i.e. composite archive file) afh: cnuas-chomhad

Ciarán Ó Duibhín
Úraithe 2024/02/19
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